Man’s understanding of the universe and everything contained in it depends on scientific knowledge. With the advancement of science and technology, human understanding of every aspect of the universe has become wider. Based on this development, discoveries, inventions, discoveries, and inventions are being made.

In 2021, this trend continued in the world of science and technology. Code 19 also introduced new trends in the world of technology. The following lines examine some of the most important discoveries, innovations, trends, and developments of the past year, which have had a significant impact on the scientific horizon.

Covid 19 / E-Commerce
The epidemic of Covid-19 spread like wildfire around the world in 2021. In the early months of last year, Corona had lost its momentum, and as a precautionary measure, covid 19 restrictions in most countries of the world had been completely or partially lifted. However, in the second half of the year, the Corona changed shape and became more aggressive in the form of “omicron”. This type of Covid 19, which originated in South Africa, has spread almost all over the world, and gradually, once again, global precautions are being taken.
In 2020, Corona had a profound impact on the e-commerce sector. The lockdown has led to a surge in online shopping, in particular. The past year has seen a further increase in this trend and the number of consumers making purchases using internet technology has increased significantly. Corona also brought many businesses online that weren’t there before. Everything from home sales to airline tickets is now being bought and sold online. According to an estimate, online sales of international stores increased by 10% during 2021.

Mars is an important milestone
In 2021, the planet Mars was touched by two more automated probes (explorers). Equipped with state-of-the-art equipment, the research spacecraft included NASA’s Preservative and China’s Xurong rover. Preserve Warren landed successfully on the land of Mars on 18 February and 14 May. The mission was memorable for China as it was the first time its spacecraft had landed on another planet. The purpose of these automated research vehicles landing on Earth’s neighbors is also to find life on this planet. Mars has been the focus of attention of scientists for decades, who believe that in the past Mars was a living planet, with rivers and oceans flowing and life in various forms.
NASA has achieved many milestones regarding Mars with the landing of Preservatives. On April 19, an Ingenuity Helicopter attached to the Presence flew over the Red Planet. It was the first human-controlled flight in any other world.
The next day, instruments mounted on the probe vehicle converted some of the amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere of Mars into oxygen for the first time. This achievement paved the way for future astronauts to obtain fuel and oxygen to breathe. Later in September, Preservatives obtained soil samples from Mars to be sent to Earth. Scientists say that after this most important development, every scientific object connected to Mars will change.

Discovery of the new human race
After two discoveries of human fossils, the knots of the human tree became more tangled. The first discovery was made in China, where a human skull was found safely in the bottom of an abandoned well. Scientific research has shown that the skull was 146,000 years old and traces of the characteristics of ancient and modern humans were found in it.
This skull belonged to a man or a human-like creature (hominin) who was closer in the form to us than Neanderthals (ancient man). Some researchers have suggested that the skull may represent a new human species, which they called Homo long or “dragon man.” The discovery sparked a new debate in research circles because another group of researchers found an unusual resemblance between the “dragon man” and a mysterious branch of the Neanderthals called the Denisovans. In June last year, researchers found in Israel a human skull and fragments of a jaw that was 120,000 to 140,000 years old. This means that Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens (a human race) were related at the same time and had interconnectedness.

Covid 19 vaccine approval
The most significant breakthrough in Corona’s global pandemic came on August 23 when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Pfizer’s biotin vaccine. Lena Wayne, a professor of public health at George Washington University, said the move would enable us to respond to the epidemic in the United States.

Completion of the human genome
Two decades ago, scientists made an explosive announcement about the sequencing of the human genome. However, this sequence was not complete. Even after years of hard work, 8% of our genetic code is still not in the grasp of scientists. However, in May last year, researchers announced the creation of the “first truly complete” sequence of the human genome. According to scientists, this sequence consists of 23 chromosomes and 3.055 billion base pairs. The study added 200 million base pairs to previous research and made several modifications to previous genome analyzes. Scientists called the study a breakthrough.

Signs of human arrival in North and South America
When did man arrive on these continents? Scientists have been researching this for a long time. A fossil has been discovered on the shores of an ancient lake in White Sands National Park, New Mexico. This footprint of a young man is challenging scientists’ predictions so far about the arrival of humans in the region. Most experts believe that these continents first became acquainted with human footsteps 13,000 years ago. However, after research on this discovery, experts say that human arrival in the continent of North and South America took place between 21000 and 23000 years ago.

Malaria vaccine ratification
The World Health Organization (WHO) approved the malaria vaccine for the first time in October, after which steps were taken to make the vaccine available worldwide. Malaria is caused by a parasite that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Malaria is a deadly disease. In 2020, malaria killed 627,000 people worldwide, 80% of them children under 5 years of age.
This vaccine, called Mosquirix, provides up to 56% protection against malaria. Although the immunization rate is lower than other vaccines, experts consider the vaccine to be an important weapon in the fight against malaria. Experts say that in addition to vaccines, other precautions against malaria should be taken in the same way as the use of mosquito nets and insecticide sprays.

The use of the Covid 19 vaccine worldwide
The most important moment came in December 2020, when vaccines began to be used worldwide to protect against this deadly epidemic. By the end of 2021, billions of people around the world had been vaccinated with the covid 19 different vaccines. On December 2, 2020, the United Kingdom approved the use of Pfizer’s biotech vaccine. A few days later, the United States urgently approved the use of the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines.In the months that followed, vaccine campaigns around the world gradually began. Questions were also raised about the effectiveness of these vaccines. There have been difficulties in providing vaccines, but vaccinations have continued, and by the end of December 2021, more than eight billion people, about half the world’s population, had been vaccinated. However, it is worrying that only 6% of the total dose of corona vaccine has reached third world countries.

Cosmic explosions
One billion years ago, a black hole collided with the remains of a dead star. As a result of this collision, waves were created in the envelope of time and space which are called waves of gravity. In January 2020, scientists pointed out this extraordinary effect. Ten days later, researchers discovered another similar event in Space.

In 2015, scientists discovered the first gravitational waves created by the collision of two black holes at a distance of one and a half billion light-years. Since then, researchers have found evidence of the occurrence of 50 collisions between black holes and dead stars in the form of gravitational waves. Last year, however, for the first time, a merger between a black hole and a neutron star was confirmed. Experts called it a significant step towards gaining awareness of the ongoing activities in space.

Transplantation of pig organs in the human body
In October 2021, scientists performed a human kidney transplant on a genetically modified pig. This kidney was working properly in this human body for more than two days. This unique operation was performed by Robert Montgomery, a surgeon at New York University. The operation is being hailed as a breakthrough in the field of xenotransplants from non-human beings to human cells, tissues, or organs.

In the future, genetically modified pigs could be an important source of organs for patients in need. However, this technology is still in its infancy. Surgeon Robert and his colleagues experimented on a mentally dead man with the permission of his family. The patient was on a ventilator. Doctors observed that the kidney had been active in the patient’s body for more than two days.

Discovery of a planet outside the Milky Way
At a distance of 28 million light-years away, astronomers have discovered a planet in the galaxy called Whirlpool, which is considered to be one of the most distant planets ever discovered. This neutron orbiting a star is as dense as a star or a black hole. Its gravity is so great that it attracts star gas. As a result, the planet’s temperature rises, and then it emits X-rays.

Discovery of the ancient city of Luxor in Egypt
In September 2020, archaeologists found the remains of a city in the deserts of Egypt. In April 2021, archaeologists declared the ruins of the ancient Egyptian city of Luxor. The city was settled three and a half thousand years ago by Aman Hotab III, the grandfather of Pharaoh Totan Khamenei of Egypt. According to experts, the discovery of this city will help to know the ups and downs of ancient Egyptian history.

After the death of Aman Hotab III, his son started worshiping only one deity (sun) except all the deities. He had left the capital, Thebes. The newly discovered city was part of it. According to experts, the discovery of Luxor opens the door to the Pharaonic Empire of that time, its power and authority, and the culture of that time.

A particle deviating from the laws of physics
In a very important experiment, scientists have found evidence that a nuclear particle called Moan is deviating from the established laws of physics. These laws are explained in a globally accepted theory of physics called the “Standard Model”.

In an experiment conducted at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermi Lab) in the US state of Illinois, the scientists measured that the particle was rotating faster than expected under the rules laid down in the standard model. According to scientists, the results of this experiment point to the existence of another particle in the universe that has not yet been discovered.

The first clear image of the phases of the formation of the moon
In July, scientists were able to capture the image of a faint saucer in a relatively young star system 400 light-years away. It was a giant gaseous planet orbiting a possible moon. According to scientists, this was the first clear image of an icy rock circle in an asteroid system that appears at the formation of the moon.
This saucer or disk found in the star system contains only two young planets that formed 6 million years ago. Experts say the discovery will help understand the formation of planets in space.

Discovery of millions of years old giant bird droppings
In 2013, in a major operation in Brazil, police recovered thousands of ancient rocks from the possession of smugglers who were trying to smuggle them out of the country. Traces of extinct biological species were visible on these large stone fragments. Scientists have been researching these rock fragments ever since. Last year, researchers published a study in which they discovered that one of the largest pieces of rock was a fossil of a giant bird found on Earth 110 million years ago. This bird was called ‘Peacock’. According to researchers, this was an almost complete structure of the pterosaur, which also contained some soft tissue. On this discovery, the experts said that finding this rakaz is no less than a lottery.

The longest asteroid
Astronomers confirmed in June last year that a long bright spot visible in the sky is an asteroid, the largest asteroid was ever seen. According to scientists, its length is 93 miles and it is 53 billion miles away from the sun. Over the next decade, this longest planet will become brighter as it faces the solar system. On January 21, 2031, it will reach the shortest distance from the earth.